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Types of Network

Active Optical Network: An active optical system uses electrically powered switching equipment. Such as a router or a switch aggregator, to manage signal distribution and direct signals to specific customers. This switch opens and closes various ways to direct the incoming and outgoing signals to the proper place. In such a system, a customer may have a dedicated fiber running to his or her house.

Passive Optical Network: The leading FTTH technology is PON or Passive optical network technology. This approach differs from most of the telecommunication networks in place today by featuring "passive" operation. Active networks like DSL, VDSL (very high bit rate digital subscriber line) and cable have active components in the network backbone equipment, in the central office, neighborhood network infrastructure, and in the customer premises equipment. PONs has only passive light transmission components in the neighborhood infrastructure with active components only in the central office and customer premises equipment.

In some cases, FTTH systems may combine elements of both active and passive architecture to form a hybrid system. Passive optical networks or PONs have some distinct advantages. They are efficient, in that each fiber strands can serve up to 32 users. PONs has low building cost relative to active optical networks along with lower maintenance costs. Because there are few moving or electrical parts, there's simply less that can go wrong in a PON. Active optical networks, however, also have their weaknesses. They require at least one witch aggregator for every 48 subscribers. Because it requires power, an optical network inherently is less reliable than a passive optical network.

Ethernet over PON: A well established last-mile technology which affordably addresses the high bandwidth demands of today's end users. G-EPON (gigabit EPON) is the architecture of choice for delivering service performance that allows the carrier to offer high bandwidth "triple play" voice , video and data services at very low access costs. An EPON uses point-to-multipoint topology eliminates active electronic components like amplifiers, regenerators and lasers from the outside plant. it also saves fiber by passively coupling traffic from up-to 256 customers end on-to a single fiber that runs from a neighbourhood demarcation point back to the service providers CO.

Allow for long reach between the CO and the customer premises, operating over distance 20 Kms.

Minimize fiber deployment in both the CO and the local loop.

Provide higher bandwidth due to deeper fiber penetration, offering gigabit-per second solution.

Operating downstream as a broadcast network, PONs allow for video broadcasting either as IP video or analog video.

Eliminate necessity of installing active multiplexers at splitting locations, relieving network operators from the gruesome task of maintaing active curbside units and providingpower to them. instead of active devices locations, PONs use passive optical splitters, located in splice trays and deployed as a part of optical fiber cable plant.

Being optically transparent end-to-end, PONs allow upgrades to higher bit rates or additional wavelengths.

As demand for broadband capacity continues to grow, it's likely government and private developers will do more to bring FTTH broadband connections to more homes.

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Comparison of Copper Network to FTTH Network

Copper Network FTTH Network
Copper Networks cannot integrate RF (TV/CCTV) signals on same cable All the services are integrated in single fiber.
For analog telephone connection, need separate PCM/Two pair Cable running from communication room to each every telephone point in the homes. Few meters of drop cable only required.
ADSL/Copper network can only support bandwidths upto 2 to 8 mbps. Supports 1 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps, 10 Gbps & more speed.
Cannot support High Definition (HD TV). HD ready, higher bandwidth supported.
Online gaming cannot be supported on copper network due to its bandwidth limitations. Fiber does not have limitation on bandwidth.
In copper network dedicated EPABX is required for community voice connection and intercom. Voice is integrated in the optical line terminal or Head end equipment, with SIP application server, we can provide feature rich free intercom to residential apartments, clubhouse and common area at free of cost irrespective of service provider.
IPTV is not supported on Copper network. IPTV is easily supported on FTTH.
Electromagnetic conductions such as Lightning can destroy electronic components in the Home FTTH is passive optical network technology; no electrical signals are carried in the optical network.
Video/CATV/DTH cannot be integrated on the same network. CATV & DTH are integrated in the same network.
Power consumption levels are high and also conducts electic magnetic signal through the copper cables. Green technology, only Head end & customer premises equipment need the power supply.
High maintenance on configuration. Low maintenance as all are centrally configurable & managed devices.